The Linux kernel lists every piece of hardware after initialization. There are many commands available in Linux that can check hardware information. While the majority of commands cover a variety of hardware units, some report only certain hardware elements like the CPU or RAM.
1. Printing Machine Hardware Name (uname –m uname –a)
The hardware name of our computer is printed by the uname command when the -m switch is used. The uname command can be used with all the switches if we want it to print everything described above.
$ uname –m
$ uname -a
Information about the CPU and processing units is reported by the lscpu command. It lacks any further features or usefulness.
Hardware List Command
a general-purpose application that provides both detailed and concise information about a variety of hardware components, including CPU, RAM, storage, USB controllers, network adapters, etc.
Lshw extracts data from a variety of /proc files. Lshw can report information on the following: bus speed, CPU speed, mainboard configuration, CPU version, and memory configuration. To discover and report the most information possible, the lshw command must be executed with super privileges.
So use sudo or execute as root. Lshw divides hardware components into categories referred to as “class.” There are several classes of processors, memory, displays, networks, and storage.
$ sudo lshw $ sudo lshw –short
Generate report in html/xml format
We can also export lshw reports in html, xml and json formats.
$ sudo lshw –html > lshw-output.html
$ sudo lshw –xml >lshw-output.xml
2. hwinfo- Hardware Information
Hwinfo is an additional general-purpose hardware probing tool that can provide more information than lshw on a variety of hardware components in both detailed and condensed forms.
$ hwinfo –short
Also Read: How to Fix High CPU Usage in Linux?
3. lspci- List PCI
The lspci command displays a list of all the pci buses together with information on all the attached devices. This includes things like the vga adapter, graphics card, network adapter, USB ports, sata controllers, etc. More comprehensive information on the PCI devices can be obtained by running the preceding lspci command with the -v flag.
4. lsscsi-List sci devices
lists the scsi/sata devices, such as optical drives and hard discs. Another well-liked BUS for connecting various types of devices to Linux computers is SCSI. SCSI interface devices cost more than PCI since business server gear typically uses them. The following command lists SCSI data that is comparable to PCI data.
5. lsusb- List usb buses and device details
This command displays information about connected devices as well as the USB controllers. Brief information is printed by default. The verbose option “-v” allows us to print specific details about each USB port. The lsusb command retrieves and publishes comprehensive information about connected hardware and USB controllers.
6. lsblk- List block devices
The lsblk programme retrieves comprehensive block device information, including the partitions of your hard discs and flash drives.
7. df-disk space of file systems
reports the used and available space on each partition, along with the various partitions’ mount points.
$ df -H
Fdisk is a tool that can be used to list all the partition information as well as edit hard drive partitions. The fdisk command can be used to acquire file system information. Although fdisk can be used to create partitions, the -l argument also offers information on file systems and other disk-related data.
$ sudo fdisk –l
To mount, unmount, and view mounted file systems, use the mount command. Once more, we may use grep to filter out all but the desired file systems.
$ mount | column -t
All other commands are distinct from the dmidecode command. Reading information from the SMBOIS data structures allows it to retrieve hardware information (also called DMI tables). # Display details regarding the processor/cp
$ sudo dmidecode -t processor # memory/ram information
$ sudo dmidecode -t memory # bios details
$ sudo dmidecode -t bios
Also Read: How to Install and Manage Python Versions in Linux?
11. /proc files
The /proc directory’s virtual files contain a lot of hardware and configuration-related data. Here are a few examples:
$ cat /proc/cpuinfo
$ cat /proc/version
$ cat /proc/scsi/scsi
$ cat /proc/partitions
The hdparm command retrieves data from sata devices, such as hard drives. Information is extracted in a slightly different way by each command.
Depending on the hardware, we might need to test more than one of these. They are accessible on the majority of linux distributions and are simple to install from the built-in repositories.
For individuals who don’t want to memorize and type commands, there are gui tools available on the desktop. Some of the well-known ones that offer thorough information about numerous distinct hardware components are Hardinfo and I-nex.
A 10K line giant bash script called Inxi gathers hardware information from numerous sources and commands on the system and creates a report that non-technical users can readily comprehend.
$ inxi –Fx
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